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Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide

Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide (or Zinc-Alkaline, or even simply Alkaline, Zn/MnO2) is similar to an "inside-out" zinc carbon cell but it has a steel can. The strong alkaline electrolyte (KOH) requires more costly seals but allows a higher rate of discharge and improved low-temperature performance. The anode is made from powdered zinc and a brass nail current collector is used to reduce the internal resistance further. Also made in the form of button cells. Cells can be operated down to -30oC, unlike zinc-carbon cells.

Although costing about 50% more per watt-hour than a zinc carbon cell, cells are cost effective at high discharge rates and are used as general purpose batteries for moderate current domestic and military applications such as radio and TV, calculators, hearing aids, cassette and tape recorders ...